Voiceovers: A voiceover/narrative is used to help tell the audience what is happening and is also used sometimes to help persuade the audience to think of a specific opinion and to think "what is right".
Real Footage of Events: Real footage in a documentary is essential as a documentary is known as a factual representation of an event or being. However, through the use of editing and soundtrack the prospective on the reality of what the audience is seeing is altered.
Technicality of Realism: This is when natural sound and lighting has been incorporated into the documentary to give it more of the reality feel.
Archive Footage and Stills: Archive footage is used when the film maker wants to back up a point and give more information to the audience or if the director is unable to gather this footage.
Interview with Experts: The main reason on why a director would have an interview with an expert is to help support their point and give the audience more information. Sometimes the director would interview an expert to challenge and try to disprove them and there "expertise".
Use of Text and Titles: This would include labels, dates, and names. Mainly at the start of interviews as a way of introducing the interviewee and also used in archive footage that gives the audience more indication on what the footage is and most of the time, when the footage was filmed.
Sound: Sound is important within a documentary and changes a lot on how the audience feels towards the subject matter. By adding music during editing the film maker can change the views of the audience by grabbing their attention, making them look highly on something or even making them look down on something like an event or even a person.
Visual Coding: Mise-en-scene props and cinematography are all elements of Visual Coding. This comes in handy when filming a documentary as when a person is being interviewed the background and props surrounding would be related to their title and why they are being interviewed.